What they have in common photography and radiology?

What they have in common photography and radiology?

radio-rct No Comments

Since the days of the old darkroom in the 17th century and the daguerreotype and calotype of the 19th century, until the industrial production of photographic plates and the invention of the portable first camera with roll of photos, improvements in procedures that precede were introduced to contemporary photography.

The 19th century was characterized by the interest in the study of the image acquisition and improvement in physical and chemical procedures to achieve this. As it happened with photography, image with x-ray production was the result of the combination of different discoveries that have been perfected over time, as well as the development of new technologies, which has finally led to the scanned images.

New photography

In 1895, the physicist Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen, studied cathode rays and x-rays discovered. He noted that it is locking radiation capable of traversing different materials and, to prove it, it was worth of photographic plates.

It was then that he made the first human x-ray, with the hand of his wife as a model, and thus marking the start of the incorporation of various techniques of physics to medical science for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Thanks to this important discovery, the scientist received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1901.

Wilhelm ConradRöntgen discovered in 1995 rays X. source: http://eltamiz.com/2008/10/28/premios-nobel-fisica-1901-wilhelm-rontgen/

First x-ray, by Wilhelm ConradRöntgen. Source: http://sobrehistoria.com/rayos-x/

For that time, photography, was already quite developed since in 1888 is launched to the market the first camera with rolls of 100 photos, so the discovery of Röntgen was seen as a “new photography”.

First Kodak camera, with rolls of 100 photos. Source: http://www.veoemociones.com/tag/historia/

Röntgen was an amateur photographer and for that reason had Instagram Printer Photo Booth in his laboratory, which helped him in his experiments with radiation. But it wasn’t the only radiologist fond of photography.

In 1914 the British radiologist John Hall-Edwards, pioneered the clinical use of x-rays in the United Kingdom, made reproductions of images with x-rays, technical that even today used it artists of the image as Nick Veasey. And it is that, at that time, the production of good quality radiographs had a directly proportional relationship to the photographic knowledge of the radiographer.

“The Radiography of flowers”, 1914.Imagen of John Hall – Edwards obtained with x-ray British Institute of Radiology. Source: http://bit.ly/1IMUx3f

20th century: digital image plates

The original photographic plates used on radiographs were those designed for ordinary photography and the results were not satisfactory, so that new materials and photosensitive chemicals were introduced to improve the image.

Like the old photograph, x-ray images passed through use of plates of glass, paper and film, though at a later date.

In terms of chemical processes, Thomas Edison demonstrated that the crystallized calcium tungstate gave better results than the platinocyanide of barium discovered by Röntgen as fluorescent compound to produce x-rays.

Thomas Edison. Source: http://www.biografiasyvidas.com/monografia/edison/

In 1914, when the first world war, broke out grew demand plates for x-ray, so it began to market an adaptation of the basis of cellulose nitrate of photographic, emulsion coated on one side only, films that had greater sensitivity than any plate made so far.

In terms of what was the best support, in those days being discussed about whether the film is crinkled and did lose the sharpness of the image, or if the glass plates had the disadvantage of easily break.However, it was not until 1918 when it launched to the market a film emulsion-coated on both sides: was so successful, that in 1930 there was no radiologist able to use plates, but the cellulose nitrate used in the manufacture of films was highly flammable, so in later years, he was replaced by cellulose acetate.

In a next installment I will discuss more about the innovations that were introduced during the twentieth century in the field of the photographic image and the radiological image, until the emergence of the digital image.

Systems of protection and shielding against radiation from antennas

radio-rct No Comments

We supply materials for shielding and protection systems for shielding the electromagnetic radiation emitted by the antennas of mobile phone, wifi, wimax base stations.

In addition to shielding materials used to protect vital spaces of high frequency electromagnetic pollution, suminsitramos a range of items of protective clothing, and protective covers mobile that reduce radiation absorbed by his head while talking by mobile phone.

To see our full range of protection products, please visit our online store. Here are the most used products to inhibit high-frequency electromagnetic pollution, both to the principle of prudent avoidance front exposures, as to relieve the symptoms of electrosensibility.

YSHIELD HSF54 shielding paint

pintura apantallamiento

YSHIELD HSF54 boats

The best solution for shielding the interiors against radio pollution is to use a conductive paint specifically designed for shielding space radiation microwave that comes from mobile phone antennas. We recommend painting of armor YSHIELD HSF54, that consists of particles of carbon contained in a high quality pure acrylic emulsion. Paint is used to isolate both interiors and exteriors, the frequencies of mobile telephony has a shield of 37 dB (reduction by 99.98%) efficiency in a hand, and 44 DB (99.996%) in both hands. Applies on the walls as a normal plastic paint. Then, you can paint above the layer of YSHIELD HFS54 with a decorative plastic paint.

  • View more information about HSF54 painting
  • Ask the HSF54 and other paintings of shielding in our online shop
  • Contact with an expert in electromagnetic shielding

Shielding fabrics for curtains

tela blindaje

Dining room with curtains shielding

Usually, much of the radiation from antennas enters through the windows and that is very important to shield these sensitive points. Shielding against radiation windows, normally use a special fabric fabric – we recommend the New DayLite – or sheer fabrics to make curtains or drapes. These fabrics are also used to make nets and skies of bed.Inhibiting New Daylite and Voile, without surface conductivity, and character textile fabrics are washable (30 ° C, without using dryer), incorporate thin copper wires covered with a layer of lacquer that provides electromagnetic radiation shielding properties. DayLite and sheer fabrics have a high shielding efficiency on all ranges of frequencies used by mobile phone networks.

  • See more information about the Voile fabric
  • View more information about Daylite fabric
  • Ask inhibitory fabrics in our online shop
  • contact with an expert in electromagnetic shielding

Conductive foils for windows

folio blindaje

Shielding EN50 Folio

If your windows have aluminum frame, as an alternative to conductive fabric curtains, you can install a conductive sheet of paper in the window pane. The folios are semi-transparent and allow the entrance of light, contain several thin metal layers to provide a surface conductivity and therefore possess characteristics of microwave radiation shielding. Please note that it is not advisable to install pages in frames of PVC Windows, given that radiation enters through frames with greater ease than by the glass windows.

  • Ask folios of shielding in our online shop
  • contact with an expert in electromagnetic shielding

Shield for outdoor and construction mesh

New constructions or renovations a conductive mesh ถุง พลาสติก can incorporate the work for shielding electromagnetic radiation. This mesh can be fixed to structures and barriers of balconies or terraces for shielding outdoor spaces.

We have various types of protective mesh:

malla apantallamiento

50m mesh A2000 + roll

A2000 + is a mesh of stainless steel fibres interwoven with a layer of conductive, easy to apply, foldable, resistant to rot and frost, therefore, is very suitable for outdoor applications. You can be installed inside walls and concrete structures, and it can also replace the normal reinforcement mesh.

HEG10 is a semi-transparent mesh of stainless steel of high efficiency to isolate high-frequency radiation, and electric fields of low frequency (with Earth). It can be used both indoors and outdoors. You can install the mesh between two structures of plasterboard or plaster, or directly attach it to the wall using any mode of fastening.

  • View more information about the mesh A2000 +
  • View more information about the HEG10 mesh
  • Ask meshes anti-radiation in our online shop
  • contact with an expert in electromagnetic shielding for more information

Meshes and shielding of very high eficica felts

In applications such as insulation against electromagnetic interference, safety issues, and other demanding applications, you need to install very high eficicia materials. The most suitable materials are HNG100 and HNG80 compact screens. The HNG100 is a compact metallic Polyester mesh due to its high metallic content, its high efficiency (100 dB) even at high frequencies of several GHz. It is an ideal material to construct Faraday cages. Attaches directly to the surface to shielding by a queue of dispersion or other form of attachment according to the needs of the project.

This is the best way to lose weight (as an outstanding scientist of the year)

radio-rct No Comments

We have constantly repeated that diet and sport must go hand in hand to achieve weight loss effectively. But it’s true?
Photo: There is a key strategy for losing weight and not exercising.  (IStock)
There is a key strategy for losing weight and not exercising. (IStock)
AUTHOR

MIGUEL AYUSO

Contact the author
@mayusorejas
TAGS

  • SLIM DOWN
  • PHYSICAL EXERCISE
  • SEDENTARY
  • SUBSISTENCE ALLOWANCE
  • OBESITY
  • NUTRITION
READING TIME 4 min

With the arrival of the New Year come good intentions, offers gyms , with a great price for you notes for 12 months and only go in January- and salads. We all want tolose weight, but with the amount of information around us do not have very clear what is the best way to achieve this .

In the end, we follow the mantra of life: “less dish and more shoe”. Or, what it is the same, eat less and exercise more. Not surprisingly, we have constantly repeated that diet and sport must go hand in hand to achieve weight loss effectively. But it’s true? Are they equally effective strategies?

It is the question that Erin Bordwin of ‘Business Insider’ has made  the renowned professor of exercise science Philip Stanforth, executive director of the Fitness Institute at the University of Texas. And his answer could not be clearer: “Studies show that in terms of weight loss, diet plays a much more important role than exercise.”

Eating better is the only way out

No one should be surprised this information, but has insisted so much on the importance of stopping the sedentary lifestyle that many people have come to think that going to the gym every day, you can eat whatever he wants. This is not true and is also an idea that may discourage many people. If we want to lose weight, dieting is a much more effective and easy strategy to follow than jogging.

The practice of physical exercise requires much time and effort and a long period needed to observe the results. In general, we all thought that sport burns a lot more calories than actually burning. Few imagine that energy to burn containing two cans of soda (500 Kcal.) Is necessary to walk nearly 10 kilometers, it explained a recent US study, website is www.santeregimerevue.fr/phen375.

Principles and techniques of dental radiography

radio-rct No Comments

Principles and techniques of dental radiography

A dental radiography can be performed by various techniques.

Radiography is to produce of X – rays of the and oral structures for the detection of diseases, according to “Dental X – Ray :. Principles and Techniques”. Attendees (those who complete a year of diploma or a two – year associate degree) must be certified to take X – rays in some states. Dental hygienists, who can complete an associate degree or four – year programs for a degree in this field, must be licensed in all states to practice dental hygiene and dental x – rays, according to the Madison NJ Dentist. These professionals must master several techniques to succeed in this field.

Methods

Dental radiography can be performed using a traditional film or digital devices. When working with a traditional film, machines intraoral dental X-rays are used to those films placed inside the mouth, while extraoral machines are used for films outside the mouth. Dental radiographs can use a film holder for holding an intraoral film inside the mouth. It can also use a beam alignment device to help position the cone intraoral X-ray machine, also called the position indication device, in relation to the tooth and the film.

When a traditional film is used, X-rays interact with the film layer called the film emulsion containing silver halide crystals absorb radiation. The crystals produce a latent image of a tooth and its surrounding structures, which becomes a visible image once the film is chemically processed. Furthermore, digital radiography involves using an intraoral sensor instead of a film to capture an image of a tooth. Once the X-rays hit the sensor, the electronic charge produced on the sensor is converted into digital form and then the image is visible on a computer. When performing a digital radiography, dental radiographers can still use the traditional X-ray machine dental intraoral.

Film Types

Three types of intraoral film there, periapical, bite-wing, and occlusal. The periapical film is used to view an entire tooth, including the root and the crown of the tooth and the bone supporting the tooth. Meanwhile, the film bite wing is used to view the crowns of the upper and lower teeth in a single film. This type of film is especially important for detecting cavities or other conditions between teeth. Occlusal film is used to examine large areas of the upper or lower jaw.

A panoramic radiograph, which is a type of extraoral film, offers a wide view of the upper and lower jaws in a single film. A cephalometric film, other extraoral film, is used to examine the bone and soft tissues of the face.

 

Techniques

Dental radiographers can expose X-ray films using two techniques, parallel technique and technique of bisection. The parallel technique involves placing a film in the mouth intraoral parallel to the longitudinal axis of the tooth, the imaginary line dividing a tooth longitudinally into two equal halves. The central ray of an X-ray beam then is directed perpendicularly to the film and the longitudinal axis of the tooth.

Furthermore, the bisection technique involves placing a film along the surface of the tongue side of a tooth and displays the angle between the film plane and the longitudinal axis of the tooth. The dental technician then you should see the line dividing this angle by half. Then you must direct the perpendicular central ray of an X-ray beam to this line to successfully capture the image of the tooth.

MAURITIUS DODO BIRDS WERE SMART ENOUGH

radio-rct No Comments

New research suggests that the dodo ( dodo) an extinct bird whose name has entered the popular culture as a symbol of stupidity, was actually quite intelligent.The work,  published today in the  Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society , believes that the overall size of the brain of the dodo in relation to their body mass was on par with its closest living relatives: pigeons, birds whose ability to be trained implies a moderate level of intelligence. The researchers also found that the dodo had an olfactory bulb (the part of the brain responsible for the sense of smell) pretty big, something strange birds, which usually focus on their ability view.
The dodo was a flightless bird of about one meter tall, endemic to the island ofMauritius in the Indian Ocean. They were last seen in 1662. “When the island was discovered in late 1500, the dodos had no fear of humans and were taken to the boats to be used as fresh meat for sailors – explains  Eugenia Gold University Stony Brook and lead author of the article -. Because of this passive behavior and invasive species that arrived on the island, the dodo disappeared less than 100 years after the arrival of humans. Today, they are almost exclusively known for their disappearance, and I think that’s why we’ve given this reputation of fools. “From Alice in Wonderland to Ice Age, there are numerous examples of this unique bird related to her stupidity , although most aspects of their biology and behavior are unknown.
Gold therefore proposed attempt to answer that mystery. He located a well -preserved dodo skull collections of Natural History Museum and underwent high -resolution computed tomography (CT). Then he compared the image with skulls of seven species of pigeons (from the most common and street to the most exotic) and that of the closest of the dodo relative, the lone Rodrigues ( Rodrigues Solitaire , a bird that also inhabited islands of villas in mauritius ). With all molds built virtual brains and comparing their sizes, found that the brain of the dodo “was not bigger or smaller – Gold points – but exactly the predictable size for their body size. So if we consider the size of the brain as a substitute for intelligence, dodos probably had a similar level of intelligence pigeons. Of course, there is more to intelligence than just the total size of the brain, but this gives us a basic measure “.
The study also revealed that both the dodo and Rodrigues Solitaire (also extinct by human activity), had large olfactory bulbs. The authors suggest that both species were terrestrial, were based on smell to find food.
“It’s really amazing what new technologies can bring to museum specimens – concludes co-author  Mark Norell Macaulay  -. This highlights the need to maintain and increase natural history collections in museums, since it is not known what the next discovery. “
The researchers also found an unusual curvature of the semicircular canal of the dodo – the balance organs located in the ear. However, so far, there’s a good hypothesis for this atypical feature.

Diet Pills Based On Medical Proven Male And Female Plants To Reduce Weight

radio-rct No Comments

The problem of obesity or overweight in the body has been categorized in obesity overweight, grade, obesity grade II and grade III obesity degree. Grade level III is used for people who are morbidly obese and overweight means is a real threat to the life of the person. The number of people (above the age of 16 years) who were obese in England in 2010 was 26.1 percent, and the percentage of people who either overweight or obese was 62.8. There are many ways in which fat is deposited in the abdomen, such as calorie intake by sugary drink containing sodium, muffins, sweets and donuts that can be added to the fat which is highly dangerous for people with overweight diet pills herbal to reduce weight provides a true and proven method to help men and women who want the Pastillas para Bajar de Peso Rapido naturally without regulating their lifestyle factors.

There are many factors that cause weight gain and control many factors at once to regulate weight and get a slimmer and more youthful appearance, diet pills herbal weight to reduce Figure capsule can be taken. Increasing obesity and risk factors: The rate of obesity is increasing and this is becoming a global trend where more and more people have difficulty controlling weight gain. In the UK, more than 22 percent of men and 24 percent of women suffer high BMI that is considered to be high enough to increase the risk of health problems related to obesity. Increased body fat is not only a health problem that raises the cost of medical care for people who have excess gain.The level of glucose tolerance is reduced body weight when body weight is high. People who reduce weight successfully are able to reduce the level of cholesterol in the body by more than 10 percent. WFP reduced by 15 percent and HDC rises 8 percent.

The mortality rate also improved because people who are obese have a higher risk of fatal diseases due to diabetes and obesity diet pills herbal to reduce weight provides one of the best way to reduce weight, because it contains many powerful herbs. The herbs in the remedy have many properties that imparts many benefits to the body. It reduces the impact of aging, reduces the level of toxins in the body and improves metabolism. Haritaki is one of the herbs found in diet pills herbal to reduce weight. Saponins contains alkaloids, tannins, phytosterols, gallic acid and various other bio-active compounds that make it effective to provide hypolipidemic effect to the body.Lowers bad cholesterol and improves the level of good cholesterol in the body to increase the body’s ability. The endocrine system is balanced and the person feels more relaxed and have a stress-free life like grass controls the secretion of chemicals that cause pain. There are many other unique herbs found in Figure capsule that can control the synthesis of fatty acids to control weight gain, diet pills and herbal to reduce weight also helps in reducing appetite Read on Washington DC personal trainer. Also know weight loss supplements herbal.

HEALTH-Mauritius: Death comes with the rains

radio-rct No Comments

Until a few months ago, the average inhabitant of Mauritius remained unanswered if he was asked what was the “chikungunya”, but is now a familiar word for majority.

It is a disease transmitted by mosquitoes, which spread rapidly during the current rainy season throughout this African island country in the Indian Ocean.

Some 157,000 of the 1.1 million inhabitants of Mauritius would be infected by the virus, which has killed 77 people in the town of Réunion, according to the World Health Organization (WHO).

Now, the rate of infection is increasing daily. Health authorities confirmed 1,322 new cases on Thursday.

The outbreak is concentrated in Mahebourg, a village in the south of the island, from where the disease spread to the northern town of Triolet.

IPS visited several patients at a hospital in Mahebourg fighting against chikungunya, a Swahili word meaning “to walk hunched over.”

Patients suffering from chikungunya fever, head stitches and severe pain in the joints of the ankles and wrists, forcing them to adopt a stooped posture when walking.

“I suffer from vomiting, and it hurts the whole body. I do not know what’s happening to me”, shouted in the hospital a young woman, Karuna Lalchand, while a man who also had great difficulty breathing infected.

Several nurses in Mahebourg also infected. “Many of my colleagues are sick and stayed home. Not enough staff to meet the nearly 400 people who call the hospital every day because they have a fever,” said one of the workers health.

The situation is similar in other health centers in the country, where there are no more beds for patients of chikungunya.

Moreover, hundreds of people, fearful of contracting the disease, go to the doctors to consult at the slightest symptom.

Cases of chikungunya are typical in the rainy season, as currently facing Mauritius as transmitting mosquitoes breed in standing water.

With a brief visit to the marshy village of Triolet one can understand why the disease spreads so fast. There abound dumpsters and abandoned plastic bags, all rainwater receptacles, which also accumulates on the roof of the houses, generally poorly designed.

“Never dry the water” ceilings, admitted Ramesh Pandit, a resident of Triolet.

The disease progressed despite a government campaign to combat it, which follows the same guidelines of an initiative against malaria in the 70’s.

Throughout the island, health workers advise citizens and teach them to clean rivers and abandoned lands, while carrying out a massive task of spraying insecticide in areas at risk.

The media, particularly radio, devote much space to information on the chikungunya, while local councils, such as the northern town of Montagne-Longue and East Saint Julien d’Hotman distribute pamphlets with information about the virus and its prevention.

One of the directors, Maudhoo Ramesh said that both the authorities and citizens were responsible for the spread of the disease.

“The first not provided sufficient services for the disposal of garbage, and the second transformed derelict land, roads and river banks in landfills,” he said.

Meanwhile, the elders of the worst affected areas fleeing to other parts of the island to avoid exposure to mosquitoes.

The sale of repellent products soared in recent months, from creams to electronic vaporizers and mosquito nets.

One company said it sold eight times more of these products in February than during the entire 2005 summer season, which lasts about six months.

Dozens of people go to pharmacies looking for some type of drug against the disease. However, it still has not created any treatment to cure or prevent it. Patients were simply given drugs to reduce fever and pain.

Despite concerns over evil, WHO has not ordered travel restrictions Mauritius luxury villas, which has an important tourist industry.

Interventional radiology is cheaper and less invasive

radio-rct No Comments

The new applications allow interventional radiology minimally invasive interventions have less impact on health care costs and therefore reduce surgical waiting lists – according to Bookkeeper Coogee

For this reason, more than 2,000 Spanish and Latin American radiologists will meet in Bilbao between 19 and 23 May to discuss this medical specialty that has increased in recent years and has been instrumental in emergency care such as bleeding.

Interventional radiology “is present throughout the process of patient care, from prevention to treatment of diseases through monitoring results at different stages,” stressed the president of the Spanish Society of Medical Radiology (SERAM ), Jose Luis del Cura.

This technique “allows us to use the image of the devices as a GPS to treat as close to some diseases, today we can open a vein or artery from the inside, treat fibroid or varicose veins without having to operate without scar, or delete a kidney or lung tumor through a hole in the skin of just 2 mm, “stated the voice of radiology congress SERAM, Fernando Lopez Zarraga.

Among the main issues to be discussed at the conference also they highlighted issues related to pediatrics and radiological protection of patients. The possibility of implementing screening systems were lung cancer.

Finally, there will be an exhibition of old X-ray equipment on the occasion of the commemoration of the centenary of the foundation.

The development of hip dysplasia. X-ray or ultrasound? Who and when?

radio-rct No Comments

The development of hips (DDC) dysplasia is a condition that can develop in the period prenatal or after the birth. It is determined largely by mechanical factors acting on the hip and its apparatus of BRA, which can be normal or present increased laxity, which can lead to instability articulate and eventually permanent, passing through all the intermediate ranks dislocation. In this way, the morphological changes of the femoral head and the acetabulum would be secondary and would be developed over the course of time. The evidence point toward this etiology. Some authors have suggested that the primary factor of the DDC would be signs of canine hip dysplasia, but it has been shown that this is rather a consequence and not a causal factor of this pathology.

Barlow described the frequent finding of unstable hips at physical birth and arriving at a near two-week period to stabilize. This is probably due to the presence of circulating hormones that are transferred by the mother and whose effect is to relax the muscles, such as relaxin and others, which produce a physiological instability.

The term DDC has been almost universally accepted and has been replaced by terms such as congenital Dysplasia of the hips, dislocation of the hips, Dysplasia of hips, etc. luxante, and includes unstable hips or luxables, hip dislocation and acetabular dysplasia.

The risk factors for the development of DDC includes a narrow or constricted fetal environment as in the oligohidroamnios. Similarly, an anomalous position in the womb causing the extension of the hips and the action of the adductor muscles is also predisposing DDC, as it happens in breech presentation. There is also a higher prevalence in direct descent, especially in what refers to parents and siblings, in such a way that a family history of DDC is another factor to consider.

Other elements that have been associated with DDC include orthopedic anomalies of limbs, especially foot bot.Congenital muscular torticollis also partnered to DDC.

Considering that the DDC is an evolutionary disease at the time, which may develop in the first months of postnatal life, a normal test both the intrauterine period in the period of immediate born does not rule out the presence of this disease. However, most occurs in the neonatal period and only occasionally manifests itself in late. You must also be considered that examination may be ambiguity in DDC detection, even in experienced hands.

It is also clear that the DDC depends mainly of the precocity of diagnosis and treatment.

Is it necessary to carry out screening with methods of images?

This is an issue on which there is a unanimous opinion. In some countries, like the United States, we advise you to usual clinical screening and only study with some method of images to those children in whom a DDC, is suspected based on the concept that a careful clinical examination can detect a DDC in all cases.

Others argue that all children should be subjected to screening mass with a method of images, either with (Rx) x-ray of pelvis or ultrasonography (US) of hips, based on the fact that clinical examination can be negative in cases of DDC, especially considering that in countries such as ours the clinical screening often is carried out by medical or paramedical personnel not experienced and also by a cost-benefit ratio, since it would be cheaper to do mass screening with images and precociously detect those abnormal hips to undergo treatment in a timely manner and, therefore, shorter duration and much better prognosis, with significant reduction in the amount of sequels. Not making radiological screening would lead to late detection of some of the cases of DDC, that would require a more prolonged treatment, much higher cost and with a greater number of sequels.

Based on our experience, we dare to recommend that in our midst all children undergo screening with the most appropriate method of images, as the case may be.

IMAGING

Rx of pelvis

The radiological examination allows us to study bone structures and alterations that occur on them. As it is a morphologic and static test does not determine the first changes, which are dynamic alterations and initially only affecting the cartilaginous and ligamentous structures. The first changes on bone structures occur after four to six weeks of manifested laxity articulate. This is his best performance is achieved when it is obtained after 2 months of age.

It has the great advantage of being a test of simple, easy to obtain in most hospitals or health centers in our country, does not require sophisticated equipment and is virtually harmless, since the doses of radiation used is negligible. It is also cheap and can be interpreted by any physician trained or experienced. Unfortunately, there is tendency among medical radiologists and orthopedic surgeons to over-diagnosis and therefore to the overtreatment by mistake in the interpretation of the x-ray study. On the other hand, at least in our country, this radiological screening allows detecting and treating early cases of DDC and thus most cases of late submission are very uncommon.

It must also be taken into account that a radiological examination technically deficient can lead to errors of interpretation with misdiagnosis, especially in Rx rotated or basculadas in the axial plane.

ULTRASONOGRAPHY OF HIPS

The US is very appropriate in the first months of life and is superior to the Rx of pelvis, enabling you to visualize the cartilaginous femoral head and the acetabulum, also allows us to study dynamically hips and his sensitivity in the detection of DDC skirt 100%. There are two aspects that stability must be considered joint and acetabular morphology,

In 1980, Graf introduced technique and proposed a method which assesses only the morphology of the hip in a single cut crowns and drew up a classification with therapeutic implications according to the measurement of angles of descent of the bony acetabulum and the angle of the fibrocartilaginous labrum (static method).Subsequent studies have shown that using only this test methodology leads in many cases to an overdiagnosis, and therefore to an overtreatment. On the other hand, being this a static technique, not allows to detect the anatomically normal and unstable hips.

Subsequently, Harcke (1984) introduced the technical dynamic that virtually reproduces the physical examination during the procedure, introducing cuts at levels crowns and cross and the use of stress maneuvers.

In our experience, which coincides with other authors, a combined technique, using simultaneously static and dynamic methods, is most appropriate and most comprehensive method to evaluate the hip of (RN and the infant.)

Probably the US constitutes the ideal method of study in the DDC detection. Unfortunately, requires equipment that is not available in all centres of health in our environment, and is also a method strongly operador-dependiente, that requires an experienced observer. It is because of this that use this technique as part of a massive screening implies greater efficiency in the detection of DDC, but at the same time cost wholesale and retail availability with respect to the Rx of pelvis.

The US carried out in the immediate neonatal period detected in a significant number of children, a physiological instability of hips, meaningless pathological in the vast majority of cases, as it was already mentioned, which can lead to undergo these babies to unnecessary treatment.

When you apply for study by images? X-ray of pelvis or hips US?

According to the earlier referred, and based on the national, international and personal experience, we consider that in our half of the recommendations should be as follows, depending on the clinical situation:

  1. Newborn with some of the predisposing factors of DDC mentioned above, but with negative physical examination: US’s hips between two and three weeks of life.

  2. Newborn with or without predisposing factors and altered physical examination: hips birth US.

  3. Newborn without predisposing factors and with negative physical exam, both in the neonatal period and in the subsequent clinical tests: Rx of pelvis at 3 months.

A relative indication of US of hips is the presence of a Rx of pelvis doubtful or technically deficient before a patient with a negative physical, on who you want to know the real relationship of femoral head cartilage with the acetabulum.

The scalability of the DDC, must take into account at all times so that a negative US during the first month of life does not absolutely rule out the possibility that this disease occurs later. For this reason, in patients with predisposing factors or altered physical examination and normal US during this period, it is advisable to check with Rx of pelvis at 3 months of age.

In general, the screening Imaging is a good complement to the physical examination. But it will be the clinical follow-up, with a meticulous examination of the hips during routine well-child visits, in the first year of life, which will allow an adequate control of the development of hips.

1. radiology, clinical Santa Maria and Dávila, José Joaquín Aguirre Hospital service.
2 Department of Radiology, Hospital Clínico Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile.

Principles and techniques of dental radiography

radio-rct No Comments

Principles and techniques of dental radiography

A dental radiography can be performed by various techniques. (X-ray dentist 01 image by Dragan Bombek from Fotolia.com)

Radiography is to produce of X – rays of the and oral structures for the detection of diseases, according to “Dental X – Ray :. Principles and Techniques”. Attendees  (those who complete a year of diploma or a two – year associate degree) must be certified to take X – rays in some states. Dental hygienists, who can complete an associate degree or four – year programs for a degree in this field, must be licensed in all states to practice dental hygiene and dental x – rays, according to the Freedom Dental Melbourne. These professionals must master several techniques to succeed in this field.

Methods

Dental radiography can be performed using a traditional film or digital devices. When working with a traditional film, machines intraoral dental X-rays are used to those films placed inside the mouth, while extraoral machines are used for films outside the mouth. Dental radiographs can use a film holder for holding an intraoral film inside the mouth. It can also use a beam alignment device to help position the cone intraoral X-ray machine, also called the position indication device, in relation to the tooth and the film.

When a traditional film is used, X-rays interact with the film layer called the film emulsion containing silver halide crystals absorb radiation. The crystals produce a latent image of a tooth and its surrounding structures, which becomes a visible image once the film is chemically processed. Furthermore, digital radiography involves using an intraoral sensor instead of a film to capture an image of a tooth. Once the X-rays hit the sensor, the electronic charge produced on the sensor is converted into digital form and then the image is visible on a computer. When performing a digital radiography, dental radiographers can still use the traditional X-ray machine dental intraoral.

Film Types

Three types of intraoral film there, periapical, bite-wing, and occlusal. The periapical film is used to view an entire tooth, including the root and the crown of the tooth and the bone supporting the tooth. Meanwhile, the film bite wing is used to view the crowns of the upper and lower teeth in a single film. This type of film is especially important for detecting cavities or other conditions between teeth. Occlusal film is used to examine large areas of the upper or lower jaw.

A panoramic radiograph, which is a type of extraoral film, offers a wide view of the upper and lower jaws in a single film. A cephalometric film, other extraoral film, is used to examine the bone and soft tissues of the face.